Zulu people, composing one of the largest ethnic groups in Africa, are originally from South Africa. The Umemulo ceremony is an essential Zulu tradition that marks a girl’s transition into womanhood. The event is characterised by the participants’ glamorous attire, beadworks, and fascinating culture.
Like the Xhosa Ulwaluko, there are a number of activities and preparations involved in the Umemulo ceremony. It is typically performed for girls aged 21, although it can be done at any time after her 13th birthday.
The following information encompasses everything you need to know in regards to the importance, preparation, and procedures of the ceremony.
How early do Umemulo preparations start?
A girl’s Umemulo ceremony preparations begin when she hits puberty, which is normally between her 13th and 14th birthdays. Once she reaches this age, the countdown for her Umemulo begins.
Although virginity is commonly held in high regard by those going through the ceremony, it is not a requirement. Girls attend monthly classes on chastity, where they are also taught about the importance of virtues such as self-respect.
What is required before Umemulo?
A week before the ceremony, the girl and her maidens are taken to a secluded place. Here, she is given a chastity test, learns how to be a womanly figure, and practices her singing and dancing moves for the big day.
The young woman is not allowed to leave the house during the week leading up to the ceremony. Her izimpelesi will bring her whatever she needs. On the night before the event, she can step outside for a few minutes but must be wrapped in a blanket .
The woman departs her dwelling to greet the cow given to her by loved ones. She then goes back inside where she’s serenaded by female attendants.
The cow is of vital importance and has a great impact on the ceremony. At nighttime, the young women exit the house wearing nothing to go sleep by the riverside. They use blankets to cover themselves while they slumber.
The day of the Umemulo ceremony
How is Umemulo done? On the morning of the ceremony, the girls undergo a final chastity test conducted by Ngobese.
After virtuous individuals are announced, their families ululate to show support. Tradition requires the girls to bathe in a river before donning Zulu attire for the ceremony. Each girl carries a calfskin shield as they leave the river. Some fat from a slaughtered cow is applied to her head as an indication of prosperity.
If the fat were to break, it would symbolize that the girl is no longer chaste. To signify their victory and strength, girls are presented with a spear when they return home. The girl must throw the spear once she arrives at the front of her home.
The father or head of the household runs out to where the girl landed, shouting words of praise and dancing to show his excitement, love, and pride for her in front of the community. He then leads her onto an open field where she can dance with the other girls.
The young girl will blow a whistle to indicate that she is seeking gifts in the form of money. Those who are present at the ceremony should then give her money, which she will collect in a hat. After the girls gifted their guests, they were lead back to a house where everyone could begin eating.
What are the other family roles during Umemulo?
On the day of their coming-of-age ceremony, it is traditional for a Zulu girl’s family to slaughter a cow or goat as part of the Umemulo celebrations. The animal is also considered an offering of thanks to the ancestors who have protected the girl until this point in her life.
Some of the cow is then used for deeper, traditional rituals. The girl’s father or older brother takes the bile from the animal and performs several customs, such as sprinkling it on her fingers, toes, and head.
The purpose of this is to connect the girl with her ancestors and pave the way for her finding a good husband.
What is the cultural importance of Umemulo?
Zulu girls have a special coming of age ceremony called umemulo. The young women are seen as ready for marriage after the Umemulo ceremony.
In the past, this was often the perfect opportunity for single men to propose to any of the celebrating ladies. If a woman already had a favourable boyfriend at that time, he would be introduced to her parents.
If he wishes to marry the girl, he will begin the process of paying lobola (the bride price). After that, he and the girl will be officially engaged.
What type of clothing do people wear during Umemulo?
The following is a guide to the acceptable dress code for various members of society during Umemulo.
Zulu attire for women
Zulu tradition dictates that women dress differently during various stages of their lives. For example, unmarried young girls typically wear skirts made of grass-reed beads and they keep their hair short. In contrast, engaged women cover their breasts and grow their hair out.
According to tradition, married women must wear a cowhide skirt and izicolo, a circular-shaped cotton and grass hat.
Zulu attire for men
Looking sharp in a feather and animal skin ensemble, Zulu men adorn two aprons – isinene in the front and ibheshu in the back – to protect their modesty. Leopard skin may only be worn by royalty as part of their attire, and Zulu headbands indicate marriage.
What are Ukusina and Omkhonto?
The Ukusina dance is an integral part of the Umemulo ceremony. The girl who is going through the initiation must learn and perform the dance for those in attendance. In South Africa today, most girls take crash courses starting a few days or weeks ahead of their Umemulo to learn the steps.
The Omkhonto is the spear given to the girl which she throws in front of different people. These people are then required to give her a gift, normally money.
One of the most fascinating aspects of Zulu culture is the Umemulo ceremony, which serves as a coming-of-age ritual for young women. Although the specifics of the ceremony have evolved over time, its core tenets remain largely unchanged.